Cessna C525 Citation, M2
A Big Step Up in a Small Airframe
The Cessna Citation M2 is more than an incremental upgrade from their entry level jet, the Mustang and the much more expensive and complex CJ line. An expanded interior that allows for a total of seven people to fly together with a much-needed move of the lavatory toilet to a location in the rear of the aircraft – with its own privacy door – bring the M2 up from to the level of a true corporate air barge.
The very first M2 was delivered in December of 2013. This aircraft shows a lot of promise and you will be seeing more and more of them as time passes.
Two Williams FJ44-1AP-22 turbofan engines are installed, one on each side of the rear fuselage in easily accessible nacelles. This engine is a 2.58:1 bypass, twin-spool design with 3 compression stages and 3 turbine stages and produces 1,965 pounds (8.74 kN) of take-off thrust at sea level, static conditions, at rated up to 72° F (22° C).
Dual channel Full Authority Digital Engine Controls (FADECs) provide automation and efficiency in engine management. Detents in the throttle quadrant for take-off (TO), climb (CLB), high speed cruise (CRU) give pilots the optimal power set- tings for each phase of fight based on ambient conditions. The system also provides time-limited dispatch (TLD) and diagnostics. Electrical power for the FADECs comes from engine driven permanent magnet alternators (PMAs) rectified to DC. There are two PMAs mounted to each engine. In the event that both PMAs fail on one engine, the FADEC on that side will draw from main DC power.
1.9.2Avionics / Cockpit Layout
The Citation M2 features the Garmin G3000 advanced avionics system, a large-format glass cockpit with integrated sensors and lightweight modular avionics. The system presents to the crew all the flight, navigation, and situational inputs, as well as aircraft systems information, for a precise picture of the total flying environment. Three liquid crystal displays (LCDs) offer high resolution, wide viewing angles, and clear sunlight readability. A three-axis digital autopilot is incorporated.
The G3000 system utilizes three 14.1 inch (diagonal) Control display units (GDU1400W) as Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and Multi-Function Display (MFD). All three are WXGA Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) with LED backlighting and a resolution of 1280 x 800.
Behind the MFDs and within the pressure vessel are the two remote audio processors (GMA 36). Located in the nose of the aircraft are the main Garmin Integrated Avionics (GIA 63W) incorporating all communication, navigation, automatic flight control, and extensive data management functions. These two interface adapter units are directly linked to the AHRS, ADCs, transponders, audio controllers, and Engine/ interface units (GEA 71, located in the tail cone). Data from each source is processed and sent to the PFDs and MFD. Ethernet architecture and various ARINC cabling are used for high-speed data transfer. Most components are line replace- able units (LRUs) contained in individual trays and racks. Two glare shield cooling fans continuously circulate cockpit air around the avionics.
Primary Flight Display (PFD):
The following elements are shown on the PFDs in normal mode: attitude (full screen horizon line), altitude tape (feet or meters with six-second trend vectors), airspeed tape (with six-second trend vectors), Mach, vertical speed, flap limit speeds, slip/skid, heading, horizontal situation, glide slope, flight director (cross pointer or single cue), navigation and communication frequencies (active and standby), navigation station/waypoint identification, track, distance, transponder code, altimeter setting (inches or hectopascals), clock, timer (up or down), temperature (RAT), ISA deviation, and many other items. V-speeds can be automatically generated or are entered manually by the pilot and will appear on the airspeed tape. At the bottom edge of the display several menu items are shown directly above corresponding soft keys on the bezel. The soft keys are used to select the menu and submenu items. Selection of the “Inset” soft key places a smaller version of the MFD navigation map in the lower corner of the PFD for added situational awareness. The Crew Alerting (CAS) information will be presented on the PFDs.
Multifunctional Display (MFD):
The MFD serves primarily as a moving map and EIS platform. The moving map may be populated with a wide variety of information including traffic, terrain, airborne weather radar, data link weather, political and airspace boundaries, airports, navaids, way points, cities, roads, Garmin Flight- Charts and Safe Taxi, and many others, all at various ranges. The pilot may choose a north-up or track-up orientation. These and many other options may be selected using the soft keys along the bottom edge of the bezel or by using the touch screen GTC 570. A subscription though Garmin is required for database updates.
The GCU 275 is a PFD controller used to perform inset map panning and ranging, to adjust the barometric setting, and to access often used and high-workload fight planning functions such as the active flight plan on the lower inset window on the PFD. The GCU 275 will also control the MFD unit when it is operating in reversionary mode and presenting primary flight information.
Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System:
The EIS information is presented on the left side of the MFD and includes: engine speeds and temperatures; oil pressures and temperatures; fuel flow, quantity and temperature; oxygen pressure and electrical and pressurization systems data. The Crew Alerting (CAS) is presented on the lower part of each PFD and shows colored text messages as determined by system inputs. Up to 10 messages are shown in the CAS box; additional messages may be scrolled into view by using the PFD soft keys. Pre-programmed logic determines the color, order, and flashing characteristics of all messages.
Each display may show the essential components of the EIS and CAS in reversionary mode. Reversion may be selected manually for either the pilot or co-pilot side using switches located below the glare shield.
Air Data and Attitude Information:
The pitot-static system includes two electrically heated pitot and static sources. Each is cross-plumbed into dual air data computers (ADCs) located in the forward nose behind the radar bulkhead. The ADCs perform source error corrections and calculate indicated airspeed, true airspeed, Mach number, vertical speed, density altitude, pressure altitude, and total temperature for output to the Interface Adapters and the PFDs.
In addition, ADC output is received by the Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS). Two solid state digital AHRS reside in the nose of the aircraft and are each tied to the three-axis magnetometers located in the tail. The AHRS are capable of in-flight and on-the-move initialization. Output from the AHRS is received and processed by the Interface Adapter Units and the PFDs. The system meets RVSM requirements.
Input from an electrically heated stall warning vane on the right side of the forward cabin is processed by the Interface Adapter Units for display on the PFDs and for input to the aural warning system.
VHF Communications Transceivers:
Dual VHF communications transceivers are part of the Interface Adapter units and produce 16 watts of transmission power. They are compliant with European 8.33 kHz channel spacing requirements. Tuning and management is accomplished through dual touch screen GTC 570 controllers. There is also an emergency radio tuning switch located on the right-side tilt panel that will tune the VHF radio to 121.5 bypassing all other tuning controls.
Remote Audio Processor:
Dual GMA 36 Remote Audio Processors controlled through the dual GTC 570 touch screen controllers provide transmitter selection for microphone inputs and direct audio out- puts from all receivers to the speakers and/or headphones at each crew station. The system includes crew and cabin intercom and the ability to record and playback up to 2 1⁄2 minutes of incoming audio. Two handheld microphones are connected to the audio processors and installed on each of the control columns.
Dual Garmin navigation receivers located in the Interface Adapter Units provide VOR, Localizer and Glideslope functions. The Marker Beacon receivers are integrated into the Audio Processors. Navigation information is displayed on both PFDs and the reversionary mode of the MFD. Tuning and management is accomplished through the dual touch screen controllers.
Each Interface Adapter Unit includes a WAAS capable GPS receiver. Both receivers are capable of monitoring 12 channels to provide satellite-based position data for use by the FMS.
Flight Management System:
The Garmin FMS provides a multiple waypoint navigation solution suitable for enroute, terminal, and WAAS precision approach navigation. The touch screen controllers (GTC570) on the pedestal are the FMS interface to the MFD.
It includes controls for selection and manipulation of moving map functions such as range and pan. Each PFD calculates and displays the current flight plan using the onside GPS sensor. Automatic GPS sensor reversion occurs in the event the onside sensor is degraded or failed.
Airway flight planning, plain language identifiers, airport communication and navigation frequency lookup features are included. Flight plans may be created, stored, accessed, and activated as needed and are shown on the MFD moving map. Both lateral and vertical modes (to the final approach fix) may be displayed and coupled to
the autopilot. Present position referenced geopolitical and airspace boundaries, and airways may be overlaid on any of the FMS map formats.
Precision guidance from the FMS meets the operational requirements of oceanic/remote, NAT MNPS, RNP10, and RNP5/BRNAV. The navigation database requires periodic updates via subscription and must be uploaded to the aircraft through the upper SD flash card port on each of the three displays.
Automatic Flight Control System:
Automatic flight control is provided in the M2 by the Garmin GFC 700 system. The autopilot system (AP) includes dual flight director computers (integrated in the Interface Adapter Units), a single Garmin Mode Controller (GMC 710), and four electric servos for roll, yaw, pitch, and pitch trim.
The GMC 710 Mode Controller, located just below the glare shield, enables the selection of flight director and autopilot modes for either pilot. The AFCS modes may be hand flown using the flight director command bars or coupled to the autopilot for automatic flight. Selection of the autopilot will automatically enable the flight director. Modes of operation include attitude, heading, altitude, speed, and vertical speed, as well as VNAV and the various NAV radio and GPS navigation modes. In addition, the AFCS provides a take-off / go-around mode activated by a button on the left throttle handle. Control Wheel Steering (CWS) and AP disconnect functions are controlled via switches on each yoke.
The pitch trim servo also provides electric pitch trim when the autopilot is not engaged, through yoke mounted trim switches. The yaw servo may be activated by the pilot during normal maneuvers to provide Dutch roll damping and turn coordination. Or, it will automatically engage with auto- pilot activation.
Transponders with ADSB-Out Capability:
Dual Mode S transponders with antenna diversity and 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (ES) Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast Out (ADS-B Out) transmission capability are included. The transponders meet European Mode S mandates for Enhanced Surveillance (EHS).
The Garmin GWX 70 is a solid-state radar with 40 watts of transmit power and Altitude Compensated Tilt (ACT). The radar supports display of different weather data on multiple display units simultaneously. Doppler capability is an option on the GWX 70 which adds the ability to see frequency shifts that are caused when an object reflecting the radar pulse is moving relative to the radar itself. The addition of Doppler adds the two distinct advantages of Turbulence Detection and Ground Clutter Suppression.
Provides the ability to show approach charts, SIDs, STARs, and airport diagrams as moving maps on the Multi-Function Display (MFD). Aircraft position is graphically overlaid in the plan view format. A profile view may also be shown, and both formats may be zoomed and panned. Chart View is integrated with the FMS to automatically load charts according to the flight plan.
A single Collins DME-4000 provides the ability to monitor as many as three active DME stations simultaneously. This allows full time distance display of pilot-selected VHF navaids, along with the enhancement of FMS position
determination through the use of non-displayed DME channels. Tuning and management is accomplished through the GTCs.
The Collins ALT-4000 Radio Altimeter system provides height above the terrain from 2,500 feet (762 m) to touch- down. This information is integrated with functions in the EFIS, TCAS, and TAWS and is presented on the PFDs.
Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I):
The Garmin GTS 855 is a TCAS I system that improves situational awareness by tracking all Mode C and S aircraft and displaying their locations on the PFDs and/or MFD. In addition to the display, Traffic Alerts are given aurally through the aircraft audio system.
Terrain Avoidance and Alerting System (TAWS):
The Garmin Terrain Avoidance Warning System is a Class B TAWS. The system provides basic terrain awareness and ground proximity alerting. Terrain information is displayed in standard colors on the MFD and gives both audible and visual warnings as required. The terrain database resides in the secure digital data storage cards located in the lower port on the right-hand side of each PFD and MFD bezel. Data is independently processed by each of the three Display Units for display either when pilot selected or when activated by ground proximity criteria.
Dispatch Avionics Switch:
A Dispatch Power switch in the Electrical Power Panel allows for limited avionics equipment to be powered for ground radio calls and FMS flight planning operations without the battery drain of powering the entire avionics suite without engines running.
Electronic Standby Instrument:
The L-3 Communications ESI-1000 Trilogy Electronic Stand- by Instrument (ESI) is a solid-state instrument that provides backup for attitude, altitude, airspeed, and slip/skid information on a 3.7-inch Liquid Crystal Display with LED backlight.
A bezel-mounted light sensor provides automatic dimming with manual o set controlled via the menu access mode. Four soft key buttons on the front of the bezel provide the user with quick access for setting display and button brightness, barometric setting and access to menu options.
Emergency Locator Transmitter:
The Artex C406-N is a three frequency ELT that transmits on the emergency frequencies of 121.5 and 243.0 MHz and the satellite frequency of 406 MHz. It is located in the tail cone and interfaces with the GIA to transmit the last known aircraft position on the satellite frequency if activated. (Interface feature disallowed by some certifying agencies.) The C406-N has a remote-control switch panel on the right-hand tilt panel and a six-year lithium battery pack.
The G3000 system includes the capability to record specific maintenance diagnostic information, which can be re- viewed on the MFD while on the ground and downloaded for review off the Aircraft. In addition, the M2 incorporates full time data storage through a Cessna Aircraft Recording System (AReS). AReS records useful data during the previous 25+ flight hours in non-volatile memory for advanced troubleshooting and analysis by systems specialists from the Seller Service and Support network.
Miscellaneous Cockpit Equipment:
• Magnetic Compass
• Eye Position Reference Indicator
• Two Ventilation Air Outlets
• Oxygen System Control
• Two Oxygen Masks
• Parking Brake Control
• Rain Removal Door Control
• Control Lock
• Emergency Brake Control
• Emergency Gear Extension Control
• Two Reading Lights
1.9.4Weight & Balance
Refer to AFM, Weight and Balance Data, Section VI.
- Max Ramp Weight: 10.800 lbs
- Max Take Off Weight: 10.700 lbs
- Max Landing Weight: 9.900 lbs
- Max Zero Fuel Weight: 8.400 lbs
- Standard Empty Weight: 6.746 lbs
- Useful Load: 4.009 lbs
- Useful Fuel Capacity: 3.296 lbs
For more information refer to chapter 1.4 – CJ1+
For more information refer to chapter 1.4 – CJ1+
For more information refer to chapter 1.4 – CJ1+
Difference: Useful fuel capacity per wing: 1.648 lbs
See Chapter 2 LIMITATIONS
- Range: 1,300 nautical miles (with reserves)
- Maximum Cruise Speed: 400 knots true airspeed
- Single Pilot: 5 to 6 passengers
- Useful Load: 3809 lb
- Take Off Distance: 3,250 feet
On the Ramp
The M2 retains the same basic lines of the Mustang or any Citation. You may notice the new wing tip extensions along with the usual low wing design. A cursory inspection of the top of the wings will show you a trim tab on the left aileron as well as flight and ground spoilers installed on top of the airfoil.
The M2 sports the usual T-tail arrangement and the fuselage shares the same clean lines of the Mustang with no bleed air windshield heat vents like those installed on older Citation models.
The Passenger Cabin
With 57 inches in height, 58 inches in width, and 11 feet in length, the M2 passenger cabin has decent headroom for an aircraft its size and the passenger seating area is efficiently laid out. Four passenger seats are in a club seating arrangement and if a fifth passenger is planned, a side-facing seat can be added to the front of the passenger cabin just aft of the cockpit.
The M2 cabin is equipped with indirect overhead LED lighting, as well as LED reading lights above each passenger seat. An emergency exit is located in the cabin on aft right side of the cabin across from the toilet.
Food and drink storage areas are improved in the M2 when compared to its little brother the Mustang, but the biggest improvement for passenger comfort has to be that the toilet has been upgraded to a flushable unit behind a hard door in the rear of the aircraft instead of a non flushable unit that is located in the front of the passenger area just aft of the pilots on the Mustang.
Additional improvements to the passenger cabin include a new entertainment system called “Clarity.” The system connects the aircrafts avionics center to provide Internet and entertainment to passengers through seat-mounted touch-screen displays or PDA’s with appropriate power outlets to give them go-juice.
Pilot operated systems and ergonomics have improved in this model with an upgraded avionics suite, redesigned pilot seating, better comfort controls and a new avionics suite that puts the M2 up with the “big boys” of corporate flying.
The avionics have been upgraded from the familiar Garmin 1000 suite found in Cessna aircraft from the 172 on up to the more jet friendly and appropriate Garmin G3000 advanced avionics system, a large-format touch-screen glass cockpit with integrated sensors and lightweight modular avionics.
All flight, navigation, and situational inputs are easily done by the pilot. Aircraft systems information is shown clearly and helps the person flying see a clear picture of their operational world. Three liquid crystal displays (LCDs) give high resolution, wide viewing angles, with the displays easily readable, even in bright sunlight. The system includes a flight management system (FMS) to handle things like navigation, engine performance.
The Garmin G3000 along with the FMS is coupled, or attached to a full service, three axis autopilot system, making it possible and even somewhat easy for a single pilot/owner to fly the airplane safely in today’s crowded ATC environment.
The mode control panel has been moved up to just below the glare shield in the cockpit – the norm for most other professionally flown jets.
No overhead switches exist on this airplane – as a matter of fact, most of the physical switches that are found on older jets and even the more recent Mustang model of Cessna jets are no longer found in the M2. These switch functions have been added to the computer touch screen system.
Other functions that used to divert a pilot’s attention are automated on the M2. Chart viewing, system status and even checklists can be done using onboard computers.
Pilots used to the G1000 system will be happy to see that the joystick and other buttons are no longer used on the G3000, which uses small touch screens to get it all done.
Standard avionics include:
- Garmin FMS with dual WAAS-enabled GPS receivers for navigation
- Weather Avoidance Radar
- Terrain Avoidance Warning System (TAWS-B)
- Garmin Traffic Collision and Avoidance System (TCAS I)
- Dual Altitude Heading Reference System
- Dual Air Data computers
- Jeppesen ChartView
- Garmin Safe Taxi
- Digital Audio System
Optional avionics include:
- Garmin SVT™ Synthetic Vision Technology
- Terrain Awareness Warning System Class A (TAWS-A)
- SiriusXM Satellite Radio
- Garmin TCAS II
- Garmin Surface Watch
- Cabin Briefer
- Satellite phone system
- Domestic and International Internet
- Manufacturer: Williams International
- Model: (2) FJ44-1AP-21
- Thrust: 1,965 pounds of thrust at sea level
- Time Between Overhaul: 3,500 hours
Two Williams FJ44 turbofan engines are found on the Citation M2. The engine produces 1,965 pounds of takeoff thrust at sea level, static conditions, flat-rated up to 72° F. Dual-channel full authority digital engine controls (FADECs) provide automation to lower pilot workload and the also add greatly to efficiency in engine management.
Another feature of the FADECs found on this airplane that pilots appreciate because it really reduces their workload during times when stress may be high are three detents, which are areas of the throttle’s range from idle to full firewall forward where the operator can feel three distinct power settings without having to look up to the power indicators. Take off power is a detent in this system along with maximum continuous power and a high speed cruise detent.
Flying the M2
This aircraft is a significant step up from its slightly slower and smaller cousin, the Mustang. Improvements in the cockpit and cabin make it a comfortable aircraft for charter and corporate work with the design still a player for the owner/operator who wants to step up from flying his or her single or multiengine aircraft to the jet world and wants the added performance found when comparing this aircraft to the Mustang.
The M2 comes fully-equipped with a price tag of a little over four and a half million dollars. This is, of course, not cheap, but there are certain advantages to the Cessna line of business jets that other brands of corporate and charter aircraft don’t have. For example, Cessna has a huge, world-wide service center system and you know that Cessna jets are going to be around for a long time.
Passengers who can’t tell a FADEC from a FMS will find the M2 a comfortable and stable ride with the speed equaling most other jets in its class. Operating costs are more than its smaller cousin the Mustang, but the M2 is faster and can carry more payload than the Mustang.
A good fast ride with up to six passengers and one very happy pilot makes the M2 a great new entry into the corporate and air-taxi world.